Article 31: Treatment of Monopolies
- The Member States may determine that the public interest requires the exclusion or restriction of the right of establishment in any industry or in a particular sector of an industry.
- Where such a determination has been made:
(a) if the determination results in the continuation or establishment of a government monopoly, the Member State shall adopt appropriate measures to ensure that the monopoly does not discriminate between nationals of Member States, save as otherwise provided in this Treaty, and is subject to the agreed rules of competition established for Community economic enterprises;
(b) if the determination results in the continuation or establishment of a private sector monopoly, the Member State shall, subject to the provisions of this Treaty, adopt appropriate measures to ensure that national treatment is accorded to nationals of other Member States in terms of participating in its operations.