Article 168: Scope of Chapter

The rules of competition shall not apply to –

(a) combinations or activities of employees for their own reasonable protection as employees;

(b) arrangements for collective bargaining on behalf of employers or employees for the purpose of fixing terms and conditions of employment;

(c)        business conduct within the meaning of Article 177duly notified to COTED in accordance with Article 170;

(d) negative clearance rulings within the meaning of Article 180 or exemptions within the meaning of Articles 181 and 183;
(e) activities of professional associations designed to develop or enforce professional standards of competence reasonably necessary for the protection of the public and approved by the Commission.